Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Jan. 31, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Accounting – The financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). Certain prior period amounts have been restated to conform to the current year presentation.
Principles of Consolidation – Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of our wholly owned operating subsidiaries, which consist of Teal Drones, Fat Shark, Rotor Riot, and Skypersonic. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates – The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates reflected in these financial statements include those used to (i) determine stock-based compensation, (ii) complete purchase price accounting for acquisitions, (iii) accounting for derivatives, and (iv) reserves and allowances related to accounts receivable and inventory.
Cash and Cash Equivalents – At January 31, 2023, we had cash of $3,893,162 in multiple commercial banks and financial services companies. We have not experienced any loss on these cash balances and believe they are not exposed to any significant credit risk.
Marketable Securities – Our marketable securities have been classified and accounted for as available-for-sale securities. These securities are primarily invested in corporate bonds and are readily saleable, and therefore, we have classified them as short term. Our available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value with any unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of comprehensive income (loss). Once realized, any gains or losses are recognized in the statement of operations.
We have elected to present accrued interest income separately from marketable securities on our consolidated balance sheets. Accrued interest income was $233,471 and $385,730 as of January 31, 2023 and April 30, 2022, respectively, and was included in other current assets. We did not write off any accrued interest income during the nine months ended January 31, 2023 and 2022.
Accounts Receivable, net – Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount less allowances for doubtful accounts. The Company's estimate of the allowance for doubtful accounts is based on a multitude of factors, including historical bad debt levels for its customer base, past experience with a specific customer, the economic environment, and other factors. Accounts receivable balances are written off against the allowance when it is probable that the receivable will not be collected.
Inventories – Inventories, which consist of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods, are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, and are measured using the first-in, first-out method. Cost components include direct materials and direct labor, as well as in-bound freight. At each balance sheet date, the Company evaluates ending inventories for excess quantities and obsolescence.
Goodwill – Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of an acquisition over the estimated fair value of identifiable net assets acquired. The measurement period for the valuation of assets acquired and liabilities assumed ends as soon as information on the facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date becomes known, not to exceed 12 months. Adjustments in a purchase price allocation may require a change in the amounts allocated to goodwill during the periods in which an adjustment is determined.
We perform an impairment test at the end of each fiscal year, or more frequently if indications of impairment arise. We have two business segments and evaluate goodwill for impairment based on an evaluation of the fair value of each business segment individually.
Property and equipment – Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset. The estimated useful lives of our property and equipment are generally: (i) furniture and fixtures - seven years, (ii) equipment and related - two to five years, and (iii) leasehold improvements - 15 years.
Leases – Effective August 1, 2021, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 842 titled “Leases” which requires the recognition of assets and liabilities associated with lease agreements. The Company adopted ASC 842 on a modified retrospective transition basis which means that it did not restate financial information for any periods prior to August 1, 2021. Upon adoption, the Company recognized a lease liability obligation of $796,976 and a right-of-use asset for the same amount.
The Company determines if a contract is a lease or contains a lease at inception. Operating lease liabilities are measured, on each reporting date, based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the remaining lease term. The Company's leases do not provide an implicit rate. Therefore, the Company uses an effective discount rate of 12% based on its last debt financing. Operating lease assets are measured by adjusting the lease liability for lease incentives, initial direct costs incurred and asset impairments. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term with the operating lease asset reduced by the amount of the expense. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate a lease when they are reasonably certain to occur.
Fair Values, Inputs and Valuation Techniques for Financial Assets and Liabilities, and Related Disclosures – The fair value measurements and disclosure guidance defines fair value and establishes a framework for measuring fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In accordance with this guidance, the Company has categorized its recurring basis financial assets and liabilities into a three-level fair value hierarchy based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique.
The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement in its entirety falls has been determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. The Company's assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
The guidance establishes three levels of the fair value hierarchy as follows:
Level 1: Inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date;
Level 2: Inputs are observable, unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, unadjusted quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the related assets or liabilities; and
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities that are supported by little or no market data.
Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Non-Recurring Basis
The Company's financial instruments mainly consist of cash, receivables, current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and debt. The carrying amounts of cash, receivables, current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and current debt approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Convertible Securities and Derivatives
When the Company issues convertible debt or equity instruments that contain embedded derivative instruments that are to be bifurcated and accounted for as liabilities, the total proceeds from the convertible host instruments are first allocated to the bifurcated derivative instruments. The remaining proceeds, if any, are then allocated to the convertible instruments themselves, resulting in those instruments being recorded at a discount from their face value but no lower than zero. Any excess amount is recognized as a derivative expense.
The Company has financial instruments that are considered derivatives or contain embedded features subject to derivative accounting. Embedded derivatives are valued separately from the host instrument and are recognized as liabilities on the Company's balance sheet. The Company measures these instruments at their estimated fair value and recognizes changes in their estimated fair value in results of operations during the period of change.
In October 2020 and January 2021, the Company entered into convertible note agreements which included provisions under which the conversion price was equal to the lesser of an initial stated amount or the conversion price of a future offering. This variable conversion feature was recognized as a derivative. Both financings included the issuance of warrants which contained similar variable conversion features. The Company values these convertible notes and warrants using the multinomial lattice method that values the derivative liability based on a probability weighted discounted cash flow model. The resulting liability is valued at each reporting date and the change in the liability is reflected as change in derivative liability in the statement of operations.
Revenue Recognition – The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). This standard includes a comprehensive evaluation of factors to be considered regarding revenue recognition including (i) identifying the promised goods, (ii) evaluating performance obligations, (iii) measuring the transaction price, (iv) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations if there are multiple components, and (v) recognizing revenue as each obligation is satisfied. The Company’s revenue transactions include a single component, specifically, the shipment of goods to customers as orders are fulfilled. The Company recognizes revenue upon shipment. The timing of the shipment of orders can vary considerably depending upon whether an order is for an item normally maintained in inventory or an order that requires assembly or unique parts. Customer deposits totaled $219,148 and $437,930 at January 31, 2023 and April 30, 2022, respectively.
Research and Development – Research and development expenses include payroll, employee benefits, and other headcount-related expenses associated with product development. Research and development expenses also include third-party development and programming costs, as well as a proportionate share of overhead costs such as rent. Costs related to software development are included in research and development expense until technological feasibility is reached, which for our software products, is generally shortly before the products are released to production. Once technological feasibility is reached, such costs are capitalized and amortized as a cost of revenue over the estimated lives of the products.
Income Taxes – Deferred taxes are provided on the liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements – Management does not believe that recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Foreign Currency – The functional currency of our international subsidiary is the local currency. For that subsidiary, we translate assets and liabilities to U.S. dollars using period-end exchange rates, and average monthly exchange rates for revenues, costs, and expenses. We record translation gains and losses in accumulated other comprehensive income.
Comprehensive Loss – Comprehensive loss consists of net loss and other comprehensive loss. Other comprehensive loss refers to gains and losses that are recorded as an element of stockholders' equity and are excluded from net loss. Our other comprehensive loss is comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale securities. During the nine months ended January 31, 2023 and January 31, 2022, comprehensive loss was $328,226 lower and $2,158 lower than net loss, respectively, related to unrealized gains on available-for-sale securities totaling $328,006 and $0, respectively, as well as by foreign currency translation adjustments of $220 and $2,158.
Stock-Based Compensation – For stock options, we use the estimated grant-date fair value method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation. Fair value is determined based on the Black-Scholes Model using inputs reflecting our estimates of expected volatility, term and future dividends. We recognize forfeitures as they occur. For restricted stock, we determine the fair value based on our stock price on the date of grant. For both stock options and restricted stock, we recognize compensation costs on a straight-line basis over the service period which is the vesting term.
Outstanding securities not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive included the following:
Related Parties – Parties are considered to be related to us if they have control or significant influence, directly or indirectly, over us, including key management personnel and members of the Board of Directors. Related Party transactions are disclosed in Note 20.
Since January 2020, we have acquired four separate businesses operating in various aspects of the drone industry. Following the most recent acquisition, the Company focused on integrating and organizing its acquired businesses. These efforts included refining the establishment of Enterprise and Consumer segments to sharpen the Company’s focus on the unique opportunities in each sector of the drone industry. The Enterprise segment, which includes Teal Drones and Skypersonic, is focused on opportunities in the commercial sector, including military. Enterprise is building the infrastructure to manage drone fleets, fly and provide services remotely, and navigate confined industrial interior spaces and dangerous military environments. The Consumer segment, which includes Rotor Riot and Fat Shark, is focused on enthusiasts and hobbyists which are expected to increase as drones become more visible in our daily lives. Effective May 1, 2022, we began to manage our business operations through these business segments. The reportable segments were identified based on how our chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), which is a committee comprised of our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), Chief Operating Officer (“COO”) and our Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), manages our business, makes resource allocation and operating decisions, and evaluates operating performance. See “Note 21 - Segment Reporting”.