Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Note 2 ??? Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Jul. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Basis of Accounting – The financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). Certain prior period amounts have been restated to conform to the current year presentation.


Principles of ConsolidationOur consolidated financial statements include the accounts of our wholly owned operating subsidiaries which include Teal Drones, Skypersonic, Rotor Riot, and Fat Shark.  Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.


As further described in Note 3, we presently expect to sell our Consumer segment, which includes Rotor Riot and Fat Shark, within the next twelve months.  Accordingly, the Consumer segment businesses are characterized as Discontinued Operations in these financial statements.  The assets and liabilities of these entities have been presented separately in the Consolidated Balance Sheet as discontinued operations.  Similarly, the operating results and cash flows of discontinued operations are separately stated in those respective financial statements.


Use of Estimates The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Significant estimates reflected in these financial statements include those used to (i) determine stock-based compensation, (ii) complete purchase price accounting for acquisitions, (iii) accounting for derivatives, (iv) reserves and allowances related to accounts receivable and inventory, and (v) the evaluation of long-term assets, including goodwill, for impairment.


Cash and Cash Equivalents – At July 31, 2023, we had cash of $937,756 in multiple commercial banks and financial services companies. We have not experienced any loss on these cash balances and believe they are not exposed to any significant credit risk.


Marketable Securities – Our marketable securities have been classified and accounted for as available-for-sale securities. These securities are primarily invested in corporate bonds and are readily saleable, and therefore, we have classified them as short term. Our available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value with any unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of comprehensive income (loss). Once realized, any gains or losses are recognized in the statement of operations.


We have elected to present accrued interest income separately from marketable securities on our consolidated balance sheets. Accrued interest income was $82,318 and $151,671 as of July 31, 2023 and April 30, 2023, respectively, and was included in other current assets. We did not write off any accrued interest income during the three months ended July 31, 2023 and 2022.


Accounts Receivable, netAccounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount less allowances for doubtful accounts. The Company's estimate of the allowance for doubtful accounts is based on a multitude of factors, including historical bad debt levels for its customer base, past experience with a specific customer, the economic environment, and other factors. Accounts receivable balances are written off against the allowance when it is probable that the receivable will not be collected.


Inventories – Inventories, which consist of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods, are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, and are measured using the first-in, first-out method. Cost components include direct materials and direct labor, as well as in-bound freight. At each balance sheet date, the Company evaluates the net realizable value of its inventory using various reference measures including current product selling prices, as well as evaluating for excess quantities and obsolescence.


Goodwill and Long-lived Assets – Goodwill represents the future economic benefit arising from other assets acquired in an acquisition that are not individually identified and separately recognized. We test goodwill for impairment in accordance with the provisions of ASC 350, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other, (“ASC 350”). Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually at the reporting unit level or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired. ASC 350 provides that an entity has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, an entity determines it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then additional impairment testing is not required. However, if an entity concludes otherwise, then it is required to perform an impairment test. The impairment test involves comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit with its book value, including goodwill. If the estimated fair value exceeds book value, goodwill is considered not to be impaired. If, however, the fair value of the reporting unit is less than book value, then an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the amount that the book value of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.


The estimate of fair value of a reporting unit is computed using either an income approach, a market approach, or a combination of both. Under the income approach, we utilize the discounted cash flow method to estimate the fair value of a reporting unit. Significant assumptions inherent in estimating the fair values include the estimated future cash flows, growth assumptions for future revenues (including gross margin, operating expenses, and capital expenditures), and a rate used to discount estimated future cash flow projections to their present value based on estimated weighted average cost of capital (i.e., the selected discount rate). Our assumptions are based on historical data, supplemented by current and anticipated market conditions, estimated growth rates, and management’s plans. Under the market approach, fair value is derived from metrics of publicly traded companies or historically completed transactions of comparable businesses. The selection of comparable businesses is based on the markets in which the reporting units operate and consider risk profiles, size, geography, and diversity of products and services. 


Goodwill for Rotor Riot relates to its strong social media presence including more than 200,000 YouTube subscribers. Goodwill for Fat Shark is attributable to its relationship with manufacturing sources in China and the potential to integrate its goggle technologies with the Teal drone. Goodwill for Teal is ascribed to its existing relationship with several U.S. government agencies including its classification as an approved vendor. The Company expects that the Goodwill recognized in each transaction will be deductible for tax purposes.  The Company has reported net losses since its inception and is presently unable to determine when and if the tax benefit of this deduction will be realized.


Property and equipmentProperty and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation which is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset. The estimated useful lives of our property and equipment are generally: (i) furniture and fixtures - seven years, (ii) equipment and related - two to five years, and (iii) leasehold improvements - 15 years.


LeasesEffective August 1, 2021, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 842 titled “Leases” which requires the recognition of assets and liabilities associated with lease agreements. The Company adopted ASC 842 on a modified retrospective transition basis which means that it did not restate financial information for any periods prior to August 1, 2021. Upon adoption, the Company recognized a lease liability obligation of $796,976 and a right-of-use asset for the same amount.


The Company determines if a contract is a lease or contains a lease at inception. Operating lease liabilities are measured, on each reporting date, based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the remaining lease term. The Company's leases do not provide an implicit rate. Therefore, the Company uses an effective discount rate of 12% based on its last debt financing. Operating lease assets are measured by adjusting the lease liability for lease incentives, initial direct costs incurred and asset impairments. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term with the operating lease asset reduced by the amount of the expense. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate a lease when they are reasonably certain to occur.


Fair Values, Inputs and Valuation Techniques for Financial Assets and Liabilities, and Related Disclosures – The fair value measurements and disclosure guidance defines fair value and establishes a framework for measuring fair value. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In accordance with this guidance, the Company has categorized its recurring basis financial assets and liabilities into a three-level fair value hierarchy based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique.


The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement in its entirety falls has been determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. The Company's assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.


The guidance establishes three levels of the fair value hierarchy as follows:


Level 1: Inputs are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date;

Level 2: Inputs are observable, unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, unadjusted quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the related assets or liabilities; and

Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities that are supported by little or no market data. 


Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Non-Recurring Basis


The Company's financial instruments mainly consist of cash, receivables, current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and debt. The carrying amounts of cash, receivables, current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and current debt approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.


Convertible Securities and Derivatives


When the Company issues convertible debt or equity instruments that contain embedded derivative instruments that are to be bifurcated and accounted for as liabilities, the total proceeds from the convertible host instruments are first allocated to the bifurcated derivative instruments.  The remaining proceeds, if any, are then allocated to the convertible instruments themselves, resulting in those instruments being recorded at a discount from their face value but no lower than zero. Any excess amount is recognized as a derivative expense.


Derivative Liabilities


The Company has financial instruments that are considered derivatives or contain embedded features subject to derivative accounting. Embedded derivatives are valued separately from the host instrument and are recognized as liabilities on the Company's balance sheet. The Company measures these instruments at their estimated fair value and recognizes changes in their estimated fair value in results of operations during the period of change. 


In October 2020 and January 2021, the Company entered into convertible note agreements which included provisions under which the conversion price was equal to the lesser of an initial stated amount or the conversion price of a future offering. This variable conversion feature was recognized as a derivative. Both financings included the issuance of warrants which contained similar variable conversion features. The Company values these convertible notes and warrants using the multinomial lattice method that values the derivative liability based on a probability weighted discounted cash flow model. The resulting liability is valued at each reporting date and the change in the liability is reflected as change in derivative liability in the statement of operations.


Revenue Recognition – The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). This standard includes a comprehensive evaluation of factors to be considered regarding revenue recognition including (i) identifying the promised goods, (ii) evaluating performance obligations, (iii) measuring the transaction price, (iv) allocating the transaction price to the performance obligations if there are multiple components, and (v) recognizing revenue as each obligation is satisfied.  The Company’s revenue transactions include a single component, specifically, the shipment of goods to customers as orders are fulfilled. The Company recognizes revenue upon shipment. The timing of the shipment of orders can vary considerably depending upon whether an order is for an item normally maintained in inventory or an order that requires assembly or unique parts. Customer deposits totaled $45,123 and $155,986 at July 31, 2023 and April 30, 2023, respectively.


Research and Development – Research and development expenses include payroll, employee benefits, and other headcount-related expenses associated with product development. Research and development expenses also include third-party development and programming costs, as well as a proportionate share of overhead costs such as rent. Costs related to software development are included in research and development expense until technological feasibility is reached, which for our software products, is generally shortly before the products are released to production. Once technological feasibility is reached, such costs are capitalized and amortized as a cost of revenue over the estimated lives of the products.


Income Taxes – Deferred taxes are provided on the liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment. 


Recent Accounting Pronouncements Management does not believe that recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.


Foreign CurrencyThe functional currency of our international subsidiary, Skyset, is the local Italian currency. For that subsidiary, we translate assets and liabilities to U.S. dollars using period-end exchange rates, and average monthly exchange rates for revenues, costs, and expenses. We record translation gains and losses in accumulated other comprehensive income.


Comprehensive Loss – Comprehensive loss consists of net loss and other comprehensive loss. Other comprehensive loss refers to gains and losses that are recorded as an element of stockholders' equity and are excluded from net loss. Our other comprehensive loss is comprised of foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains or losses on available-for-sale securities. During the three months ended July 31, 2023 and July 31, 2022, comprehensive loss was $291,035 and $133,934 lower than net loss, respectively, related to unrealized gains on available-for-sale securities totaling $289,389 and $133,582, respectively, and foreign currency translation adjustments of $1,646 and $352.


Stock-Based Compensation – Stock options are valued using the estimated grant-date fair value method of accounting in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation. Fair value is determined based on the Black-Scholes Model using inputs reflecting our estimates of expected volatility, term and future dividends. We recognize forfeitures as they occur. The fair value of restricted stock is based on our stock price on the date of grant. Compensation costs is recognized on a straight-line basis over the service period which is the vesting term.


Basic and Diluted Net Loss per Share – Basic and diluted net loss per share has been calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share of common stock because they were anti-dilutive. The conversion or exercise of these common stock equivalents would dilute earnings per share if we become profitable in the future. Outstanding securities not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive included:


    July 31, 2023   April 30, 2023
Series B Preferred Stock, as converted     3,896       822,230  
Stock options     6,884,017       4,784,809  
Warrants     1,539,999       1,539,999  
Restricted stock     842,701       781,060  
Total     9,270,613       7,928,098  




Related Parties – Parties are considered to be related to us if they have control or significant influence, directly or indirectly, over us, including key management personnel and members of the Board of Directors. Related Party transactions are disclosed in Note 20.


Segment Reporting


Since January 2020, we have acquired four separate businesses operating in various aspects of the drone industry. Following the Teal acquisition in August 2021, we focused on integrating and organizing these businesses. Effective May 1, 2022, we established the Enterprise and Consumer segments in order to sharpen our focus on the unique opportunities in each sector. Enterprise's initial strategy was to provide UAV's, primarily drones, to commercial enterprises, including the military, to navigate dangerous military environments and confined industrial and commercial interior spaces. Subsequently, Enterprise narrowed its near-term focus on the military and other government agencies. Skypersonic's technology has been re-focused on military applications and its operations consolidated into Teal. The Consumer segment, which includes Fat Shark and Rotor Riot, is focused on hobbyists and enthusiasts which are expected to increase as drones become more visible in our daily lives.  The reportable segments were established based on how our chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), which is a committee comprised of our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), Chief Operating Officer (“COO”) and our Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), manages our business, makes resource allocation and operating decisions, and evaluates operating performance. See “Note 21 - Segment Reporting”.


Liquidity and Going Concern The Company has never been profitable and its net losses have been increasing related to acquisitions, as well as costs incurred to pursue its long-term growth strategy. During the three months ended July 31, 2023, the Company incurred a net loss of $5,810,348 and used cash in operating activities of $6,926,069. As of July 31, 2023, the Company has working capital of $22,945,400. While the Company has historically been successful in raising capital to meet its working capital requirements, the ability to continue raising such capital to enable the Company to continue its growth is not guaranteed. Therefore, there is substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as the Company will require additional liquidity to continue its operations and meet its financial obligations for twelve months from the date these consolidated financial statements are issued.